Jainism is an Indian religion that prescribes a path of non-violence towards all living beings. Its philosophy and practice emphasize the necessity of self-effort to move the soul towards divine consciousness and liberation
Any soul that has conquered its own inner enemies and achieved the state of supreme being is called Jina (Conqueror or Victor).
Jainism is also referred to as Shraman (self-reliant) Dharma or the religion of Nirgrantha (lit. those without ties) by ancient texts. Jainism is commonly referred to as Jain Dharma in Hindi and Samanam in Tamil.
Jain doctrine teaches that Jainism has always existed and will always exist, although historians date the foundation of organized or present form of Jainism to sometime between the 9th and the 6th century BC.
It has been hypothesized that like several traditions in Hinduism, proto-Jainism may have had its roots in the Indus valley civilization, reflecting native spirituality prior to the Indo-Aryan migration into India.
In the modern world, it is a small but influential religious minority with as many as 4.2 million followers in India, and successful growing immigrant communities in North America, Western Europe, the Far East, Australia and elsewhere.
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